Description and Operation
In a communications network (data bus system), various modules of different systems are connected to one another via one or several lines.
The sole purpose of the data bus system is the transmission of data between the connected modules themselves, as well as between the connected modules and the Worldwide Diagnostic System (WDS).
In a data bus system, complete data blocks are transmitted instead of single in/out pulses. In addition to the actual information, these data blocks also contain data regarding the address of the module to be addressed, the size of the data block and information for monitoring the content of each individual data block.
Data bus systems offer various advantages:
The WDS is connected to the various bus systems and to the power supply via the standard 16-pin Data Link Connector (DLC). The signal for the module programming is also transmitted via the DLC.
If, in a data bus system, there is a break in one or both lines or a short to ground or short to voltage is present, then communication between the modules and with the WDS is faulty or is no longer possible at all.
In order to be able to establish communication with one another, the modules of the individual systems must use the same language. This language is called a protocol.
At present, Ford uses three different data bus systems. Depending upon model and equipment level, all three data bus systems are used. Each of these data bus systems has its own protocol.
Data bus systems:
In order to guarantee a high degree of error protection, two 120 Ohm terminating resistors are installed in the CAN bus. These are integrated in the first module connected to the CAN bus and in the last module connected to the CAN bus respectively and are used for suppression as well as the elimination of voltage peaks. In order to ensure correct functioning of the data bus system, the modules must always be connected with an integral terminating resistor.
The advantages of the CAN bus are:
In vehicles built from MY 2003.75, an additional second CAN bus system is used depending upon vehicle model. The only significant difference is a lower transmission rate and it is mainly used for the convenience electronics at present. In order to be able to differentiate between individual CAN bus systems, the CAN bus system with the high transmission rate is designated as high-speed (HS) CAN bus and the CAN bus system with the lower transmission rate as mid-speed (MS) CAN bus. As in all CAN bus systems, two 120 Ohm terminating resistors are also installed in the MS CAN bus in order to increase the error protection. In order to enable communication between the modules on the HS CAN bus and the modules on the MS CAN bus, one module is connected to both data bus systems. The connection of both data bus systems is designated as gateway. In this gateway, the received data is converted to the transmission rate required for the relevant data bus and is transmitted. This ensures an optimal distribution of information between both data bus systems.
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Item Part Number Description 1 - PCM
NOTE: In vehicles with 1.8L Duratec-SCi (MI4) engine, no SCP bus is used.
The SCP bus only connects the PCM with the DLC. It is only responsible for communication between the PCM and the WDS. On certain engine versions, a programming line (ACP bus) is also provided.
ISO 9141 bus
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Item Part Number Description 1 - ISO 9141 bus 2 - DLC 3 - Generic Electronic Module (GEM) 4 - Electronic Automatic Temperature Control (EATC) module or Automatic Temperature Control (ATC) module 5 - Instrument cluster 6 - Restraints Control Module (RCM) 7 - Audio unit or audio/navigation system 8 - Transmission Control Module (TCM) 9 - High intensity discharge headlamp (right-hand and left-hand side) 10 - ABS module or ESP module 11 - Fuel fired booster heater
The modules connected to the ISO 9141 bus depend upon the equipment level of the vehicle. The ISO 9141 bus is used solely for reading out the fault memories of the modules connected to the data bus.
The ISO 9141 bus connects the various modules to the WDS via the DLC.
CAN bus - vehicles built up to 06/2003
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Item Part Number Description 1 - High-speed CAN bus 2 - Terminating resistors 3 - DLC 4 - PCM 5 - Injector Driver Module (IDM) 6 - Fuel injection pump 7 - TCM 8 - Instrument cluster 9 - Yaw rate sensor 10 - Steering wheel rotation sensor 11 - Electronic stability program module 12 - EATC module or ATC module
Vehicles built up to 06/2003 have only one CAN bus. This is designated as high-speed CAN bus (HS CAN). The modules exchange data with one another via this HS CAN bus. The modules connected to the HS CAN bus depend upon the equipment level of the vehicle.
One 120 Ohm terminating resistor is installed in the PCM and in the instrument cluster respectively. These terminating resistors are used for suppression of the data bus system. In order to be able to ensure correct functioning of the data bus system, the modules must always be connected with an integral terminating resistor.
CAN bus - vehicles built from 06/2003
Item Part Number Description 1 - Mid-speed CAN bus 2 - High-speed CAN bus 3 - Terminating resistors 4 - DLC 5 - EATC module or ATC module 6 - PCM 7 - TCM 8 - Fuel injection pump 9 - ABS module or ESP module 10 - Instrument cluster 11 - Yaw rate sensor 12 - Steering wheel rotation sensor 13 - Electrical actuator, turbocharger guide vane adjustment 14 - GEM 15 - Compact Disc (CD) changer 16 - Navigation module 17 - Touchscreen 18 - Audio unit 19 - Audio system module 20 - Bluetooth voice control module
Due to the increased number of modules and the resulting ever-increasing data transmission, a second CAN bus (mid-speed CAN bus (MS CAN)) is used in vehicles built from 06/2003. This operates at a lower speed and is mainly used for communication relating to the convenience electronics.
A gateway (portal) is used in order to enable data exchange between the HS CAN bus and the MS CAN bus. The gateway serves as interface between the two CAN data bus systems and is installed in the air-conditioning module.
The modules connected to the two CAN data bus systems depend upon the equipment level of the vehicle.
One 120 Ohm terminating resistor of the HS CAN bus is installed in the PCM and in the instrument cluster respectively.
One 120 Ohm terminating resistor of the MS CAN bus is installed in the GEM and in the EATC module or ATC module respectively.
These terminating resistors are used for suppression of the data bus system. In order to be able to ensure correct functioning of the data bus system, the modules must always be connected with an integral terminating resistor.